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Title: A Study of the Principles of the Ideal Urban-Architecture for the 21st century
Authors: PARK, YEOL
Keywords: Urban, Utopia, Perception, Compression, Technology, Architecture, City
Issue Date: 14-Dec-2011
Abstract: The perception of the ideal utopia changes based on the different contexts such as politics, social, cultural and historical conditions and technologies. The cities reflect these states of mind which are transformed through urban evolution. There are factors concerning the ideal city as the spirit of the time that affect the urban form. The goal of this study is to define these factors to understand and analyze the characteristics of the ideal urban-architecture of the 21st century. Utopia is the basic concept. Historically, the aim of the space called “city” has been a utopia for the human civilization. Hence, first, I analyze the relationship between utopia and the ideal city through investigating urban characteristics chronologically, based on the urban theories and plans relating to the changes of thought on utopian urban-architecture. Then, I also investigate several accomplished urban plans of cities in the 20th century as practical case studies to understand how urban theories v and planning have been implemented. To examine this, I investigate contemporary urban plans as an example of contemporary ideal urban-architecture. The 8 cities selected as case studies are classified in 3 categories: Urban, District and Self-sufficiency. The selection was made considering construction time, geographical location, objects, and key functions. Through these processes of research it is shown that the concept of utopia plays an important role in the development of the urban structure throughout time, even when it has been difficult to be realized in an urban structure physically. And the process of research makes it possible to draw the common constructive principles, which were used to operate on the ideal urban-architecture, from the analysis of the flow of urban-planning in history. As a result, they can be categorized in three main factors for constructive principles of the ideal city: Perception, Compression, and Technology. Perception is related to the utopian thought that has concretized as the image for the future. It is based on real experiences, or at least imaginable experiences. Generally speaking, perception has changed dynamically relying on the different time periods and in new perceptions; it doesn’t matter if it is positive or negative, it criticizes reality and plays an important role in the creation of a utopian society. Time and space are very significant factors as indexes in the ideal urban-architecture, based on the utopian thought. Compression of time and space physically influences the urban form vi in the construction of the ideal urban-architecture. The form and structure of the ideal urban-architecture has been dynamically transforming in relation to the level of this compression of time and space. Since the 19th century, the fundamental motif for the ideal cities is to overcome time and space in people’s daily life. The progress of the ability to overcome time and space has rapidly affected the perception of the society. Then, it has also played a key role in the construction of the ideal urban-architecture. Technology has been a key factor as a tool in the progressive flow of the ideal urban-architecture. It worked together with the other two principles: Perception and Compression. It accelerated the compression of time and space and renewed the perception on time and space at the same time. The technology of the steam engine caused the automation system in the industrial field, and it gave people freedom from natural time and labors. Besides, the progress of transportation: train, steamship, car, airplane, etc., also accelerated the speed of the compression of time and space in the 19th and in the early 20th century. In the late of 20th century the progress of information and communication has brought the concept of synchronization and the virtual world into our daily lives. Thanks to these new technologies, people can have new experiences in terms of time and space and the boundary of perception has been vii getting wider and deeper at the same time. As a conclusion to this study I analyzed and summarized the concept of the ideal urban-architecture towards the 21st century under those three constructive principles. It is shown that they create the spirit of the time for the ideal urban-architecture of the 21st century. In fact, the paradigm for the 21st century can be analyzed under these three constructive principles. It is significant to identify the direction of ideal urbanarchitecture in the 21st century.
Research interests: Urbanism, Progetto in scala grande
Personal skills keywords: Project manager

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